Circular economic business models, that is, those that seek to keep materials and products in continuous use, are increasingly considered as an important solution to our increasingly complex societal problems including our waste crisis, climate change, and even societal inequities. From the perspective of individual businesses, however, there are many challenges to transitioning from a linear to a circular model, or even launching a circular venture. One challenge often overlooked, is how businesses design these products or services, in a way that fulfills the needs of existing and prospective customers. Questions like: “How will customers engage with the circular offering relative to the existing or “new” offering? Will customers want to purchase previously used items? Will customers buy into a shift from a product offering to a service offering?” among many others, can feel daunting for a business to address.
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